Welcome to F.I.E.L.D.- the First Ismaili Electronic Library and Database.


Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

"His name was Muhammad Sultan, also known as Sir Sultan Muhammad Shah, the Aga Khan III, born at Honeymoon Lodge in Karachi on Friday, the 25th Shawal, 1294/November 2, 1877 at 5:30 pm. When the news of his birth was routed to Imam Hasan Ali Shah in Bombay, he said: "Name him Muhammad Sultan. He will be a Sultan (emperor) in the world. His period will witness wonderful events, and will earn distinguished position in the world."

His father, Imam Aga Ali Shah had declared him as his successor for the first time in the village of Kamod in Ahmadabad on December 12, 1884, whose official farman was sent to the Varas of Junagadh. Imam Aga Ali Shah returned to Bombay on December 16, 1884 just one day before the death of Pir Shihabuddin Shah. On January 14, 1885, the Imam took his son and successor in the Bombay Jamatkhana and made him seated on the throne and said the jamat to perform his dastbosi. Thousand of persons participated in the ceremony.

He ascended the throne of Imamate at the age of 7 years, 9 months and 16 days on 6th Zilkada, 1302/August 17, 1885. The British empire awarded him the title of His Highness in 1886 in the time of Lord Reay, the then governor of Bombay. On that occasion, the Iranian king sent him a sword and an ivory stick as presents.

Until the age of 18 years, he received education in Bombay and Poona. He was deeply indebted to his learned and wise mother, Lady Aly Shah, to whom he owed his liberal and extensive education. Though deprived of the paternal solicitude of his father at the age of 8 years, his mother took abundant parental interest in his education. Besides oriental languages like Arabic, Persian, Urdu and Hindi, he also developed command over English, French and Germany. Along with Islamic education, he also studied western thought, sciences, metaphysics, astronomy and mathematics from his three European tutors. He had a gifted and farsighted mother, Lady Aly Shah, who engaged best scholars to teach him Koran, Hadith and oriental languages. She also played a seminal role in the administrative affairs of the Ismaili community through a council committee.

He started visiting the Ismaili communities outside Bombay in 1312/1894. He made his debut as an educational reformer and visited the Mohammadan Anglo Oriental College in Aligarh (high fort), about 79 miles south-east of Delhi, on November 22, 1896 and had a productive meeting with Sir Ahmad Khan (1817-1898). Sir Syed Ahmad Khan had founded the Aligarh College on November 1, 1875, and was the vice-President of the College Fund Committee as well as its Honorary Secretary. Willi Frischauer also writes in The Aga Khans (London, 1970, pp. 56-7) that, "How wonderful if Aligarh could become a full university to bring up a generation of young leaders and advance the cause of Islam. Here was a chance to follow in the footsteps of his ancestor who had founded al-Azhar, the first Muslim university, which greatly appealed to the young Aga Khan. He decided to put up money for the cause and persuaded wealthy friends to contribute. It was a long struggle but he missed no opportunity to plead for this cause and when Aligarh finally became a university two dozen years later, it was more to Muslims than a seat of learning. In retrospect it was recognized as the intellectual cradle of independent Pakistan and the Aga Khan's enthusiasm and support which made it possible earned him a place among Pakistan's founding fathers."

In 1315/1897, a terrible famine had badly shaken the Bombay Presidency. The Imam supplied food and seed, cattle and agricultural tools to the needy people, and in order to provide job opportunities, he started the construction of his Yeravada Palace at Poona. In Bombay, a large camp was pitched at Hasanabad, where thousands of people were daily fed at his expense; and to those who were ashamed openly to participate in this hospitality, the grain was provided to them privately for about six months. The famine was followed by the epidemic of bubonic plague and the superstitious people of India refused to be vaccinated against the disease. The Imam obtained the service of an eminent bacteriologist, Dr. Waldemar Mordecai Wolff Haffkine, the Director-in-Chief of the Government Plague Research Laboratory, Bombay. He was a crusader against meaningless superstitions and traditions, when soon after famine came plague, the people were in a panic and there was a hue and cry against inoculation with anti-plague serum. The Imam collected the people at his Khusaro Lodge, where the doctor was staying and addressed meetings explaining the benefits of inoculation. In front of this gathering he got himself inoculated, so as to dispel their superstitious fears, and strengthen their confidence in scientific methods of cure. This prompted others to follow and many lives were saved as a result. In the meantime, it had been proposed to give a public dinner to the Imam in view of his outstanding services. When he had been informed of it, he wrote to the Secretary of the Reception Committee a letter, which showed his innermost feeling evoked by the distress of the poor people. He wrote: "I cannot accept any entertainment when thousands of people are dying of starvation. It is almost wicked to waste money on rich food when thousands of people are starving. I would urge that every rupee that could be spared should be given for the relief of sufferers by famine instead of wasting it on the entertainments."

In 1316/1898, the Imam set out from Bombay on his first journey to Europe, and visited France and Britain, where he had an audience with Queen Victoria at Windsor Palace. In the state banquet at Windsor Palace, he was sitting next to the Queen on her right side. He was invested the honourable title of Knight Commander of the Indian Empire (K.C.I.E.). He also met the future king Edward VII.

Imam Sultan Muhammad Shah paid his first visit to East African countries in 1317/1899, where the Sultan of Zanzibar granted him the title of Brilliant Star of Zanzibar. On his second visit to Europe in 1900, the Imam held a meeting with Muzaffaruddin Shah Qajar (1313-1324/1896-1907) of Iran in Paris, who awarded him the title of Shamsul Hamayun or Star of Persia. He had also a meeting with Turkish Sultan Abdul Hamid II in Istanbul, who granted him the title of Star of Turkey. The German emperor Kaiser William II also awarded the title of First Class Prussian Order of the Royal Crownat Potsdam.

Queen Victoria expired on January 22, 1901. The Imam attended the funeral at London on February 2, 1901. He was the personal guest of emperor Edward VII at his coronation in August 2, 1902, who promoted the Imam from the rank of Knight (K.C.I.E.) to that of Grand Commander of the Order of Indian Empire (G.C.I.E.). He returned to India in November, 1902. The viceroy of India, Lord Curzon appointed him to a seat of his Legislative Council of India.

The Imam believed that the root cause of Muslim backwardness in India was illiteracy, and therefore, education was the panacea for their ills. He thought that education should be a medium of service to others and a tool for modernization. According to Islamuddin in The Aga Khan III (Islamabad, 1978, p. 22), "It was he, who, translated the dream of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan into reality, by raising the status of Aligarh College into a great Muslim University." Sirdar Ikbal Ali Shah states in The Prince Aga Khan (London, 1933, p. 65) that, "It was Sir Syed Ahmed who founded Aligarh College, but it was the Aga Khan, an ardent enthusiastic promoter of the ideal of education, who has been mainly responsible for the raising of its status to that of a University."

To make a concerted drive for the collection of funds, a Central Foundation Committee with the Imam as Chairman with Maulana Shaukat Ali (1873-1938) as his Secretary; and prominent Muslims from all walks of life as members was formed at Aligarh on January 10, 1911. The Imam accompanied by Maulana Shaukat Ali toured throughout the country to raise funds, visiting Calcutta, Allahabad, Lucknow, Cawnpore, Lahore, Bombay and other places.

On October 20, 1920, the Aligarh University was granted its official Charter. In spite of several obstacles, the Imam continued his ceaseless efforts for the Muslim University, and further announced his annual grant of Rs. 10,000/- for Aligarh University, which was subsequently raised.

The year 1324/1906 marks the cleavage and culmination of Muslim politics in the subcontinent, when the Imam led the Muslim delegation and met Lord Minto (1845-1914), the Viceroy of India from 1905, at Simla to demand the political rights of the Muslims of India. Lord Minto gave them a patient hearing, assuring that their political rights and interests as a community will be safeguarded in any administrative organization. The Imam realized that the Muslims should not keep themselves aloof from politics because the Congress was already proving incapable in representing the Indian Muslims. At length, the demands of separate electorate and weightage in number in representation to all elected bodies were accepted by the Viceroy Lord Minto, and incorporated in the Minto-Morley Reforms of 1909.

In the meantime, The All-India Muslim Educational Conference met at Dacca on December 30, 1906. The Conference unanimously resolved that a political association styled as the All-India Muslim League be formed to promote among the Muslims the loyalty to the British government, to protect and advance the political rights and interests of Muslims, and to prevent the rise among Muslims of India of any feeling of hostility towards other communities. The Imam was thus elected permanent President of the All-India Muslim League and Syed Hussain Bilgrami was made the Honorary Secretary. At the sixth annual session of Muslim League held on March 22-23, 1913 at Lucknow, the Imam resigned from the presidency. In a meeting of the Council of the League, held on February 25, 1914, the Imam was declared the Vice-President of Muslim League, and Sir Ali Muhammad Khan (1879-1931), the Raja of Mahmudabad was elected as the second President of Muslim League in the eight session at Bombay on December 30, 1915.

From 1325/1907 onwards, the Imam established his chief residency in Europe. In 1330/1911, emperor George V visited India and invested him the title of Grand Commander of the Order of Star of India (G.C.S.I.). In 1332/1914, the Imam went to Europe and offered his services to the British government during the First World War (1914-1919), urging his followers to help the British authorities in their regions. He was given an eleven-gun salute in 1916 in Britain for his contribution towards the Allied War efforts, which was a rare occurrence in diplomatic history. He was also accorded the status of a First Class Ruling Prince of Bombay Presidency.

In 1339/1920, the Aligarh University came into existence with the untiring efforts of the Imam, and he was appointed its first Vice Chancellor in 1340/1921.

In 1341/1923, the Imam took a leading part in the Khilafat Movement with the Indian Muslims, and raised his voice through articles in newspapers and letters to British authorities. This was indeed a critical time that his loyalty to the West and his unbounded love for Islam directly clashed, but the Imam decidedly championed the cause of Islam. He wrote a historic letter in association with Right Hon'ble Syed Ameer Ali (1849-1928), a member of the Privy Council of England, addressed to Ghazi Ismet Pasha, the Prime Minister of Turkey on November 24, 1923, insisting not to liquidate the symbol of Islamic unity, and pleading that the matter of Turkey be given considerable hearing at the conference table. This letter was published in London Times on December 14, 1923. Aziz Ahmed writes in Islamic Modernism in India and Pakistan (London, 1967, p. 138) that, "The letter influenced and possibly precipitated the decision of the Turkish National Assembly taken on March 3, 1924 to abolish the caliphate and to exile Abd al-Majid. This marked the end of a centuries-old institution and of an era in the history of Islam."

His global popularity as a man of peace found expression in a resolution moved in the Indian Council of State on February 5, 1924, recommending the government of India to convey to the Norwegian Parliament the view of the House that, "His Highness Sir Sultan Mahomed Shah, the Aga Khan is a fit and proper person to be awarded the Noble Prize for Peace in this year, in view of the strenuous, persistent and successful efforts that he had made to maintain peace between Turkey and the Western Powers since the armistice."

The Imam led the Muslim delegation to the first Round Table Conference, held in St. James Palace in London on November 12, 1930, to consider the future of India. There were 57 members of the British Indian delegation, representing all the Indian parties except the Congress. The Muslim Delegation was led by the Imam and other eminent members, like Mahomed Ali Jinnah, Sir Mohammad Shafi, Maulana Mohammad Ali, Dr. Shafat Ahmad, Sir Zafrullah, Nawab Chhatari and Fazl-ul-Haq. Prominent among the princes were the Maharajas of Bikaner, Alwar and Bhopal, and among the eminent Hindu leaders were Sir Tej Bahadur Supru, Jayakar, Shashtri, Dr. Moonje and others. The Conference was presided over by Lord Sankey. In the deliberations of the Conference, the Imam played a dominating role. At the second Round Table Conference, the British government was keen to secure the co-operation of the Congress, and the Viceroy proposed to nominate Dr. Ansari and Sir Ali Imam. As both were staunch supporters of the Nehru Report, therefore, Sir Fazl-i-Husain (1877-1936) protested and averted all possible dangers to the unity of the Muslim Delegation. The Imam, as its leader, held at the members together and prevented disruptive tendencies from growing up among the Muslims. Azim Husain quotes a letter of Sir Fazl-i-Husain, addressing to Dr. Shaffat Ahmad Khan on July 28, 1931 in Fazl-i-Husain (Bombay, 1946, pp. 251-2), which reads: "Whatever lionizing may take place of Gandhi in London, you Muslim members of the Delegation, if you played your cards well, would have a pull over all other communities in as much as you have the Aga Khan, who stands pre-eminently in English public life, and no more popular figure, whether English or Indian, exists there. So, if you held together and acted under the Aga Khans's guidance, no harm could possibly come to you."

The Imam was better suited than any other Muslim leader for the negotiations that were to ensue. The second Round Table Conference opened on September 7, 1931. The distinguished group of newcomers included Gandhi, Sir Mohammad Iqbal, Dr. S.K. Datta, G.A. Birla, Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, Mrs. Naidu and Sir Ali Imam. M. Abdul Aziz writes in his The Crescent in the Land of the Rising Sun (London, 1941, p. 146) that, "The Round Table Conference in London have happily shown us the way how to deal with problems which appeared at first sight to be insoluble, and, in this connection, I desire - and I am sure every Muslim in India desires with me - to pay a tribute to the great services which His Highness the Aga Khan has rendered during the deliberations of the Round Table Conference and the sessions of the Joint Parliamentary Committee to the cause of the Muslims in India."

After the termination of the conference, the British parliament took its turn to consider the question of the future government of India. Thus, a strong parliamentary committee was set up to go over the matter. The committee was in almost unbroken session of 18 months, holding 159 meetings. The striking feature of this committee was the presence in it of some of the delegates from India, who took part in the examination of 120 witnesses and in the committee's private discussion. The Imam headed the list of 21 key leaders whom the committee consulted at every step. Under the wise and able leadership of the Imam, the Indian Muslims came up with flying colour from the Round Table Conference. He had piloted the ship with skill and courage and brought it safely into harbour. He played his cards remarkably well and with his inimitable tact. The Imam had also a meeting with Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948) in London. This conference continued until 1934, marked the climax of the Imam's involvement in Indian politics.

Writing his congratulations to the Imam, Sir Abdullah Haroon had routed a telegram to London on December 27, 1932 that:- "On behalf of Sind please convey my heartiest thanks to all Round Table Delegates especially Muslim Delegation whose labours crowned with success. Sind and Muslims of India never forget Your Highness services which you are rendering. May Allah reward you" (vide Haji Sir Abdoola Haroon by Al-Haj Mian Ahmad Shafi, Karachi, 1939, pp. 85-6). In addition, Shafaat Ahmad Khan wrote a letter to Sir Abdullah Haroon on January 17, 1932 from Allahabad, wherein he describes, "Aga Khan is our greatest Muslim leader in Asia, and Jinnah is also a man of extraordinary vision." (Ibid. p. 100)

To separate Sind from the Bombay Presidency was a colossal problem. It loomed so large on the political horizon that it eclipsed all others, because Sind separation assumed a communal colour. Long and bitter were those days of uncertainty for Muslims. In 1935, the Imam was appraised of the benefits that would accrue to Sind after separation. He gave the problem a close and careful consideration. The Muslims of Sind were convinced that their cause was in safe hands. Then came that day of rejoicing when Sind separation was accepted in principle and subsequently confirmed by the Parliament and thus the provincial independence was won for the Muslims of Sind. Muhammad Hashim Gazdat urged the Imam that, "We people of Sind will be happy and proud if you may arrive in Sind as a first governor." The Imam replied that, "My friend, I have no desire to be a governor, but I am a governor-maker."

It is difficult to sum up the services of the Imam hitherto he rendered for the cause of the Indian Muslims. K.K. Aziz however writes in his History of the Idea of Pakistan (Lahore, 1987, 1:94) that, "He played an important part in the elevation of the Aligarh College to the status of a Muslim university; his role in the Muslim struggle for winning separate representation was vital and extended from the 1906 Simla deputation to the working of the 1935 reforms; his exertions in the direction of uplifting the community were generous, commendable and sincere; his sustained and anxious efforts to extract safeguards for the Muslims from the British government were often successful and brought much security to the community. These are valuable services which every prejudiced historian will acknowledge gladly and readily."

At the end of the First World War in 1918, a Paris Peace Conference had been formulated by the Allies in 1919, being composed of four leading statesmen, viz. Lloyd George representing Great Britain, M. Clemencean France, Signor Orlando Italy and President Wilson, the United States; and finally The League of Nations was founded in Geneva in January, 1920 and M.P. Hymans of Belgium was appointed the first President. The Imam led the Indian delegates in Geneva, and attended the Disarmament Conference, where he delivered a stirring speech on February 19, 1932. He also attended the Third Disarmament Conference and made a speech on February 2, 1933. During the 15th session of the League of Nations, the Imam also gave his speech to the assembly on September 27, 1934. He also addressed the League of Nations in Geneva during its 17th session on September 29, 1936. In sum, the Imam's interest in international affairs in Geneva culminated in his election in the session of July, 1937 as the President of League of Nations in place of the former President, M.P. Van Zeeland of Belgium, and all the 49 votes cast in a secret ballot were found to be in his favour.

The Imam made his first presidential speech in the League of Nations on September 13, 1937 during its 18th session. Thus, Sir Samuel Hoare, the ex-Secretary of State of India was compelled to remark that, "The Aga Khan does not belong to one community or one country. He is a citizen of the world par excellence."

During the Second World War (1939-1945), the Imam once again urged his followers to support the British cause in the war. The Imam presided over the convocation of Aligarh University in 1938, and in its conclusion, he put his resignation from Pro-Vice Chancellorship in favour of Nawab of Rampur. The University was keen to have him associated, therefore, he was elected the Rector of the University. On June 16, 1945, the Imam presided over the first East African Muslim Public Workers Conference, and also held an historical Mission Conference of the Ismailis in Dar-es-Salaam.

In 1949, the Imam was declared an Iranian citizen and was awarded the title of Hazratwala, i.e. His Royal Highness by His Imperial Majesty the Shahinshah of Iran. He also visited Pakistan for the first time after independence on February 2, 1950 and was awarded an honorary degree of LL.D. from the Dacca University in 1951. On March 3, 1951, the Syrian government invested him the title of Order of Ommayad. In 1951, the Imam paid his first visit to Iran to attend the marriage of the Iranian king with queen Sorayya. Arriving in Tehran, he looked up at the sky and the land-scape and exclaimed: "What a lovely and beautiful country I have. I had been cherishing for years the desire to visit my beloved native land." On February 11, 1951, one day before the wedding ceremony, His Majesty the King had awarded the Order of the Crown First Class to the Imam. During his visit to Iran, he also went to see Mahallat. Thousands of people lined the roads for a glimpse of one whose ancestors had been the revered and benevolent rulers of the area.

The Imam used to raise his voice in the defence of Islam, whenever it was under inroad. In October, 1951, the London Times made some unfair allegations against Islam and the Prophet of Islam. In a spirited reply to the London Times on October 22, 1951, he said that, "Islam was not only tolerant of other faiths but most respectful and indeed fully accepted the divine inspiration of all theistic faiths that came before Islam." He further said: "If there has been violent reaction against the West in some Muslim countries, the reason is to be found in the attitude and behaviour of the westerners, their ignorance and want of respect for the faith and culture of Islam, of which the reference to that faith in your leading article is a typical and usual example."

His illustrious and outstanding services for the cause of Islam were not confined to newspapers only. As a patron of Western Islamic Society, London, he worked for the educational and social uplift of the Muslims. He built and maintained many mosques, one of them is the Aga Khan Mosque at Cardiff. He had also given Rs. 75,000/- for the repairing of al-Aqsa Mosque, and Rs. 25,000/- for the Nairobi Mosque. He also established the Aga Khan Construction Fund to repair Badshahi Mosque in Lahore. In 1936, the Muslims of Sind had formed a committee led by Sir Ghulam Hussain Hidayatullah to erect a memorial for the services of the Imam towards the creation of Sind province. It was decided to build a Grand Mosque and name it after the Imam. When he was informed the plan, the Imam agreed to contribute on rupee by rupee basis for the proposed mosque fund, but said: "Why name the mosque after me?" He prevailed upon the committee to name it as Muhammad Jamia Masjid. This clearly shows that he did not wish to bask in the sunshine of acclamation and praise. What he wanted was the greater glory of Islam.

During his long Imamate period, the Imam devoted much of his time and resources in consolidating and organizing the Ismaili community, especially in India and East Africa. He was notably concerned with introducing the socio-economic reforms, transforming his followers into a modern, self-sufficient community with high standard of education and welfare. The development of a new communal organization thus, became one of the Imam's major tasks.

On October 7, 1955, the Imam sent a message to the world Ismaili jamat that, "I regret, owing to old age, I find it difficult to sign regularly my name. In view of this from now onwards, in order to have a regular signature, I will write "Mohamed Huseini" in the Arabic Sheikheste and in English my initials "AK". As I have to sign hundreds of letters, it is becoming very difficult as one approaches eighty to keep a regular signature." Yours affectionately, A.K.

In 1956, Queen Elizabeth of Britain conferred upon the Imam the title of Grand Cross of the Saint Michael and Saint George (G.C.M.G.).

He was a prolific writer, and compiled India in Transition, published by Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. in 1918, which he dedicated to the loving memory of his mother. It deals the future political affairs of India. On October 29, 1952, he declared in an interview with New York Herold Tribune, Paris for compiling his autobiographical work, and began to write it on January 3, 1953. It was published in 1954, entitled Memoirs of Aga Khan.

The first marriage of the Imam took place in 1314/1897 with Shahzadi Begum, the daughter of his uncle Aga Jhangi Shah, at Poona. In 1908, he married to Mlle Theresa Maglioni (d. 1926) in Cairo, who bore Prince Aly Salomone Khan on June 13, 1911 at Turin in Italy. She had visited India with his son in 1923, and died on December 2, 1926 at Paris at the age of 37 years. In 1929, the Imam married his third wife, Mlle Andree Carron, who bore his second son, Sadruddin on January 17, 1933. On October 9, 1944, the Imam married his fourth and last wife, Mlle Yvette Labrousse, known as Mata Salamat Umm Habibeh.

Donning the mantle of Imamate in 1302/1885, the Imam had completed 50 years of his spiritual leadership in 1935. His devoted followers, long looking forward to the auspicious day, got feverishly busy to pay a memorable tribute to their Imam. The Ismailis decided that the Golden Jubilee of their Imam should be fitly celebrated by weighing him against gold, and making a present of the gold to him as a mark of their love and gratitude. Bombay was the venue for the Golden Jubilee in India in 1936. On January 19, 1936, the Golden Jubilee of the Imam was celebrated with great pomp at Hasanabad in Bombay, where a crowd of over 30,000 Ismailis was thronged. The second Golden Jubilee was celebrated on March 1, 1937 at Nairobi amid extraordinary jubilations. Once more the precious metal was presented to the Imam as a token of their love and affection, and once more it was given back to them with his blessings.

Sixty years of his benevolent rule as spiritual father gave his grateful community a chance to celebrate the Diamond Jubilee of his Imamate by weighing him against diamonds. The first Diamond Jubilee was held on March 10, 1946 in Brabourne Stadium at Bombay.

The second Diamond Jubilee had been celebrated in the sports ground of the Aga Khan Club at Dar-es-Salaam on August 9, 1946. The sum value of the diamonds at each place was again an absolute gift to the Imam from his jubilant followers. This vast sum was again invested by him in a trust meant to enrich the life of the community in the educational and commercial spheres

The platinum jubilee celebration, marking the 70th anniversary of the Imamate was festivated at Karachi on February 3, 1954. The celebration culminated in the weighing of the Imam against platinum. The funds collected at the celebration were used for the implementation of multi-purpose socio-economic projects.

Imam Sultan Muhammad Shah, the Aga Khan III, the 48th Imam of the Shi'a Ismaili Muslims died at his villa in Versoix, near Geneva on 12th Zilhaja, 1376/July 11, 1957. Umm Habibeh Mata Salamat sent following telegram:

Geneva: 11th July, 1957

Our beloved Hazar Imam is no longer physically with us. He left this world peacefully in his sleep this morning.

Prince Aly Khan also sent following telegram:

Geneva: 11th July, 1957

Please inform all jamats my beloved father bodily passed away peacefully today eleventh July at 12.30 a.m. Heartbroken at our irreparable loss of his constant love, spiritual guidance and leadership. My devoted and ever loving thoughts to all.

A fitting tribute was paid to him by daily English Dawn of Pakistan on July 12, 1957 that, "With the passing away of the Aga Khan, we witness the end of an era." According to New York Times (July 12, 1957), "The Aga Khan III's death leaves our contemporary world just a little less colorful than it was." He was buried in a permanent mausoleum at Aswan, overlooking the Nile in Egypt. In accordance with his last will, his grandson, Karim succeeded to the Imamate as the 49th Imam.

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